Most people who design websites or apps in Photoshop will, at one point or another, have had issues trying to match colours in images to colours generated by HTML, CSS or code. This article aims to solve those problems once and for all.
Colour management attempts to match colours across devices
In the printing world, colour management typically involves calibrating your entire workflow, from scanner or digital camera to computer display to hard proofs to the final press output. This can be quite a tall order, especially when the devices use different colour spaces — matching RGB and CMYK devices is notoriously hard.
When designing or editing for TV, it’s common for the main editing display to be calibrated and for a broadcast monitor to be used — these show a real time proof for how the image might look on a typical TV in a viewer’s home.
In those scenarios, colour management offers many benefits and is highly recommended.
When building web and application interfaces, the situation is a little different. The final output is the same device that you’re using to create the artwork — a computer display. (Please ignore the differences in gamma between Windows, OS X prior to 10.6 and the iPhone for now, as these are covered later.)
When designing websites or app interfaces, we’d like to perfectly match the colours displayed on screen in Photoshop and saved in files with what’s displayed in other applications, including Firefox, Safari and the iOS Simulator. We want the colours to not just look the same, but the actual values saved into files to match the colours we defined in Photoshop perfectly.
Colours can not shift or appear to shift in any way, under any circumstance.
Why is this so difficult?
Photoshop applies colour management to images displayed within its windows and also to the files it saves. This is a bad thing if you’re working exclusively with RGB images that are for web or onscreen UI. With the default Photoshop settings, #FF0000 can display as #FB0018 and #BB95FFas #BA98FD. The exact values will depend on the display and profile you’re using, but differences definitely exist with the default Photoshop settings.
How does Photoshop’s colour management differ to colour management in OS X and Windows?
OS X’s colour management is applied to the entire display at the very end of the processing chain, after the main buffer in video ram. This means that although colour management is being applied, software utilities that measure colours on screen (like /Utilities/DigitalColor Meter) will still report the same values as you saved in the file or entered into your code. I believe the colour management in Windows Vista and Windows 7 (Windows Colour System) works in a similar fashion.
Photoshop’s colour management is applied only to the image portion of its windows and to the files it saves. This colour correction happens as Photoshop draws the image on screen, so software utilities that measure colours on screen often report different colours to the ones you specified. It’s worth noting that OS X’s colour management is applied on top of Photoshop’s.
The best solution I’ve found is to disable Photoshop’s colour management for RGB documents as much as possible. Doing so forces RGB colours on screen and saved to file to match the actual colour value. If you need your monitor to be calibrated a specific way, then you’ll be best served by changing it at an OS level for web and app design work.
Disabling colour management used to be quite easy in Photoshop CS2 and all versions prior, but now requires a little more skill.